Nawab Faizullah Khan, who ruled for 20 years, was a great patron of scholarship. He started making collection of Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Urdu manuscripts which are now kept in bulk in Rampur Raza Library. After Nawab Faizullah Khan’s death, his son Muhammad Ali Khan took over the charge. But just after 24 days of his charge, he was killed by the Rohilla leaders. Ghulam Muhammad Khan, the brother of the deceased, was then declared as Nawab. The East India Company took exception to this, and after a rule of just 3 months and 22 days, Ghulam Muhammad Khan was defeated by its forces and the Governor-General made Ahmad Ali Khan, son of the late Muhammad Ali Khan, the new Nawab. He ruled for 44 years. Muhammad Ali Khan did not have any sons, so Muhammad Said Khan’s son Ghulam Muhammad Khan, took over charge as the new Nawab. He established Courts, raised regular Army and carried out many works to improve the economic conditions of farmers. He died in 1865, thereafter his son Kalb Ali Khan took over charge and became the new Nawab.
Nawab Kalb Ali Khan, a literate in Arabic and Persian, under his rule did lots of work to uplift the standard of education. During his rule for 22 years and 7 months, he built the Jama Masjid in Rampur at a cost of 3 Lakhs. He also became a member of Council during the period of Lord John Lawrence. Furthermore he was knighted in Agra by the Prince of Wales. After his death his son Mushtaq Ali Khan took over. He appointed
W. C. Wright as the Chief Engineer of the estate and built many new buildings and canals.
In the year 1889, Nawab Hamid Ali became the new ruler. He was just 14 at that time. During his reign, many new schools were opened and lots of donations were provided to nearby colleges. He donated Rs. 50,000 to Lucknow Medical College. In 1905 he built the glorious and splendid Darbar Hall within the Fort which now houses the great collection of Oriental manuscripts held by the Rampur Raza Library. His son Raza Ali Khan became the last ruling Nawab in 1930.
The State of Rampur was merged into the Republic of India on July 1, 1994. Today, Rampur presents a slightly putrefied appearance of the palaces of the Nawabs, their gates and walls of the fort. However, the Ramapur Raza Library reminds of the period of Nawabs. The library serves as a flourishing institution of immense value to scholars from all over the world.
During India’s First War of Independence in 1857, the Nawabs of Rampur sided with the British and this enabled them to continue to play a role in the social, political and cultural life of Northern India in general and the Muslims of United Provinces in particular. They also gave protection to some of the literary figures from the Court of Bahadur Shah Zafar. In 1949, Rampur was incorporated into the state of Uttar Pradesh.
After Independence, the important descendants of the Nawabs were Murad Mian, the first child of Murtaza Ali Khan Bahadur of Rampur and Begum Noor Bano, the widow of the former Nawab, Zulfiquar Ali Khan of Rampur. In 1999, Begum Noor Bano became a politician by winning the election from Rampur parliamentary constituency. She lost the elections in 2004 and 2009. Murtaza Ali Khan and Zulfiquar Ali Khan (aka Mikki Mia), who continued to use the title of Nawab even after independence but never ruled Rampur, are now dead. In 1972 elections, Murtaza Ali Khan won from Rampur against his mother Rafat Jamani Begum. Although the two brothers, Murtaza Ali Khan and Zulfiquar Ali Khan, were always political rivals but they never stood against each other. Later on, the family got involved in smuggling scandals related to some smuggling from Pakistan, where one of the sons of Murtaza Ali is married. Raza Inter College, Hamid Inter College and Murtaza Inter College are three higher secondary schools named after three.
Muhammad Shah, Sardar Daud Khan, Nawab Faizullah Khan, Muhammed Ali Khan, Ghulam Muhammad Khan, Nawab Kalb Ali Khan, Mushtaq Ali Khan, Nawab Hamid Ali, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Murad Mian, Murtaza Ali Khan, Zulfiquar Ali Khan, and The British are the rulers who ruled the kingdom.
The place became famous when the royal Baldesmiths of local Nawabs of Rampur started making knives known as ‘Rampuri Chaaku’.
Ustad Allauddin Khan was a disciple of the legendary Veena player.
Wazir Khan, a court musician of the Nawab, established modern Maihar gharana with disciples like Pandit Ravi Shankar, Nikhil Banerjee, Vasant Rai, Pannalal Ghosh, Bahadur Khan and Sharan Rani.
Ustad Mehboob Khan was a Khayal singer and Veena player of the Rampur court.
Ustad Inayat Hussain Khan, son of Ustad Mehboob Khan, lived in this city and founded the Ramapur-Sahaswan gharana of Hindustani classical music.
Former film actress Jaya Prada of seventies and eighties was elected a Member of Parliament from Rampur in 2004 and 2009.
Film actor of past years, Raza Murad hails from Rampur.
Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi, a member of Bhartiya Janta Party was elected to Lok Sabha in 1998.
Prof.Ravindra Khattree, a renowned academic statistician, spent some of his childhood days in Rampur. He studied there at Murtaza Inter College and Raza Inter College.
Mohammad Azam Khan, a member of Samajwadi Party, was elected as a Member of Legislative Assembly 6 times from Rampur. He held Cabinet Minister positions for the Uttar Pradesh Government in the years 1989, 1993 and 2003. Mohammad Azam Khan has been a strong political rival of the preceding Nawab family of Rampur which owes its commitment to the Congress party.