Madhepura has a vibrant history that could be traced back to the reigning period of Kushan Dynasty of Ancient India. The "Bhant” communities from the villages of Basantpur and Raibhir representing Shankarpur block are considered to be the descendants of the Kushan Dynasty. At that time, Madhepura was an integral part of Maurya Dynasty, a fact detailed by the Mauryan pillar at Uda-kishunganj. Between the period of 1704 AD and 1892 AD, the Kosi river with its various courses remained striding the regions beginning from Forbesganj to Chandeli Karamchand and Raghuvansha Nagar & eventually converging itself with the Ganges at Kursela.
During olden days, the city of Madhepura was a part of Anga Desh. It was under the administration of the Maurya, Sunga, Kanva and Kushan dynasties. It was a segment of Mithila province during Gupta Dynasty. It is interesting to note that the Mauryan Pillar found at Kishunganj contains the testimony to it. The city remained as a stronghold for the Bihar rulers during Rajput rule. Also, the current Raibhir village belonging to the Singheshwar block was once a mainstay for Bhars.
During the Mughal era, Madhepura continued to be under Sarkar Tirhut. A masjid of that time of Emperor Akbar can still be found in Sarsandi village of Uda-Kishunganj. Sikander Sah had also toured the district, which is a fact that is obvious from the coins unearthed at Sahugarh village.
The region has been considered for the purpose of meditation by Lord Shiva and other Gods. Sri Hari Shankar Shrivastav 'Salav', a famous historian, explores the location of Madhepura being a part of Singheshwar and as the point of devotion and experiment of Vivandak along with his son Rishya Shringa. Satokhar village derived its name from the Sanskrit word Sapta Pokhar - Seven Ponds, which is said to have been on the western bank of one of the rivulets of Kosi west of Singheshwar at a distance of 5 km. There exists a 'Yajna Shala' that was created by Rishi Shring for Putreshthi Yajna (Sacrificial ceremony for a son's birth). Rishi Shring at the request of his wife Santa, the adopted daughter of Rompad, agreed and sermonized the Yajna to compel God in blessing King Dashratha with sons. Eventually, the wives of Dashratha became pregnant after consuming medicated Khir prepared by Rishi Shring. This had resulted in the birth of Lord Ram and then Lakshmana; Bharat & Shatrughan were born one after the other. Even, Bharat Puran also terms Singheshwar as Sringeshwar. The region has been considered for Rishi Shring Ashram during the epic Ramayana period. The surroundings consist of a jungle inhabited by deer, leopards, bears, etc. King Yudhishthir is believed to have come to the place along with Rishi Lomus during the Mahabharata era.
Sheet and Basant both kings of Kushan dynasty visited this area. The fort of Sheet was situated at present Kadamma. Meanwhile, the fort of Basant was situated at present Basantpur, a village under Singheshwar block. Ruins and remains of those mighty forts are still apparent. Sri Nagar, a village belonging to Ghailarh block that was carved out of Madhepura block in recent times, exists at a distance of 22 m west of Madhepura town along with the remains of the two forts of King Sri Deva.
Madhepura was also a part of India’s freedom struggle with Indian National Congress having a stronghold here. The 25th Session of Indian National Congress at Allahabad was held in 1910 had a delegation from Madhepura which was led by Babu Rash Bihari Lal Mandal along with other prominent leaders of Khaddar Andolan who were Jai Narayan Mandal & Raj Kishore Chaudhary. Dr. Rajendra Prasad (Independent India’s first president) & Md. Saukat Ali conducted earthquake relief works which hit the region in 1934. The place was later also visited by Mahatma Gandhi as it also participated during the Quit India Movement in which the Late Bhupendra Narayan Mandal had a important role to play. Finally, it was a 14 year old boy Hare Krishna Chaudhary and Kameshwar Lal Das who unfurled the National flag on the Treasury building of Madhepura court on 13 August 1942 before the country set free from foreign rule.
The Kushanas, The Mauryas, The Sungas, The Kanvas, The Guptas, The Rajputs, The Bhars, The Mughals, Emperor Akbar, King Sheet, King Basant, King Sri Deva and The British are the rulers who rules the kingdom
Madhepura was under the rule of several dynasties since ancient times such as The Kushanas, The Guptas and The Mauryas. Famous personalities such as King Yudishthir are believed to visit this place. Lord Shiva too considered this place ideal for meditation. On the flip side, Madhepura is famous for the mixed past of consistent floods and famine in the region. The inundating water levels are a regular feature because of River Kosi.
Famous personalities – Emperor Akbar, Vivandak, Rishya Shringa, King Sheet, King Basant, King Sri Deva, Babu Rash Bihari Lal Mandal, Jai Narayan Mandal, Raj Kishore Chaudhary, Dr. Rajendra Prasad & Md. Saukat Ali, Bhupendra Narayan Mandal,Hare Krishna Chaudhary, Kameshwar Lal Das, Mahavir Lal Das, Sumena Devi, Babu Ras Behari Lal Mandal, Babu Bhubneshwari Prasad Mandal, Babu Kamleshwari Prasad Mandal, Bindheshwari Prasad Mandal, Shiv Nandan Prasad Mandal, Kamleshwari Prasad Yadav.