Bhojpur city is one of the prominent cities of Bhojpur district, which is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state in eastern India. Arrah town (also known as Ara) is the district administrative headquarters. The district covers an area of 2,395 sq km (925 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to that of Cornwall Island in Canada.
It is situated at a longitude of 83º 45' to 84º 45' East and the latitude is 25º 10' to 25º 40' North and is at a height of 193 meters above sea level. The district is bound on the north by the districts of Saran (Bihar) and the Balia district of Uttar Pradesh. Towards the south, it is bound by the district of Rohtas; on the west by the district of Buxar and on the east by the district of Patna, Jahanabad and Arwal.
Bhojpur derived its name from Raja Bhoj, the great king belonging to the Rajputs from Ujjain in the Malwa province.
During 2006, the Indian government referred to Bhojpur as one of the nations’ 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one among the 36 districts in Bihar presently receiving funds as part of the Backward Regions Grant Fund Program (BRGF).
As for the agriculture part, River Sone and River Ganges are the perennial sources of surface water. They offer the best means for irrigation to vast portion of agricultural lands. During the "Pre-Zamindari Abolition" era, the Zamindars used to manage "Ahars" and Pynes" serving the purposes of irrigation as well as drainage in some areas of the district. Manually dug wells also used to be a great source for cultivation.
According to the District Statistical Report published by the District Administration in the year 2001, an area of 15,493 hectors is cultivated by big Sone canals, 14,940 hectors of land is cultivated by middle Sone canals and 18,379 hectors of agricultural land is cultivated by small canals. 2,582 hectors of land is irrigated through Govt. Electronic Tube wells and 2,099 hectors, of land is irrigated with Govt. Tub wells powered by diesel. The area of land cultivated by private Electric Tube wells is 8,263 hectors. Also, 16,999 hectors of land is cultivated by diesel operated private Tube wells 58,586 hectors of land cultivated by other means or irrigation like Ahars, wells and ponds etc. Eventually, the records represent that 177,341 hectors of land out of 2,37,526 hectors of land of total area is cultivated. It reflects the fact that 74.66 % land of the district is cultivated.
The regions of Bhojpur, both the irrigated and non-irrigated areas excluding the small hills are being explored for cultivation. Also, few large ponds and "Jhils" which were regarded as duck-shooting areas have been dehydrated and put to crop for cultivating "Boro crops". Extensive agriculture is also being considered by what is famously called as "Package Program". The Block Development Authorities are also attempting to enhance cultivation and increase the output. The refurbished Sone Canal System has the aim of bringing in more land under cultivation. Horticulture is fast progressing and orchards are being sprung up of all parts.
Additionally, mines and mineral resources in the newly constituted Bhojpur district are very little. The sole mineral product in this district is that of sand from River Sone. Almost 40 km length of Sone contains the part of southern and eastern boundary of the district of Bhojpur. The only administered sand - collecting location is Koilwar, which is at a distance of almost 5 km strip. Nearly 35 km length is not properly maintained for gathering the sand.
From an industrial point of view, post bifurcation of the old Shahabad district in the new district of Bhojpur and Rohtas the large scale industries generally came under Rohtas district. There are, however, various forms of small cottage industries apart from few agro-based industries established in the region of Bhojpur.
Languages consist of Bhojpuri, a local dialect in the Bihari language group with almost 40,000,000 speakers, which is written in both the Devanagari and Kaithi scripts.
Fashion of Ara is traditional but now people started accepting Western or Indo-western clothing. A lot of national and international brands have established their showrooms in Ara.