Hyderabad History, A.P: Hyderabad, the city with high profile, has a garrulous history. Its history began with the establishment of the Qutub Shahi dynasty in the year 1518 when Quli Qutub seized the reins of power from the Bahamani Kingdom. The kingdom was ruled by the seven great Shah rulers who contributed to the growth and development of the city. Over a period of time, he established the fortress city of Golconda, one of the five kingdoms that emerged after the breakup of the Bahamani Kingdom. Quli Qutub's son, Jamsheed, became the King and later his brother Ibrahim succeeded him in 1550. During his reign the kingdom flourished in terms of trade and commerce. Merchants from Turkistan, Arabia and Persia frequently visited the place for trade.
It was during this period that two tanks- Ibrahim Patnam tank and Hussain Sagar were built. Besides, a bridge was built on the river Musi that was known as Puranapul. Eventually after his death in 1580, his son Mohammed Quli Qutub Shah took over the throne. He found the city of Hyderabad on the banks of River Musi in 1591 and shifted his capital from Golconda to Bhagyanagar (the present Hyderabad). Like his father, the Sultan married Bhagyamati, a Telugu girl. Later he gave a title "Hyder Mahal" to his wife Bhagyamati and renamed the city as Hyderabad. That's how the city is called as Hyderabad.
During the rule of Mohammad, the fifth Qutub Shahi ruler, Charminar, the iconic monument of the city was constructed in gratitude to the Almighty for arresting the plague epidemic, which broke out during that period, before it harmed the city. It was during his reign that Golconda became one of the leading markets in the world of diamonds, pearls, steel and printed fabrics. Golconda diamond mines are the birth place of the famous diamonds in the world- Hope Diamond, Kohinoor and Darya-ye Noor. Quli Qutub Shah was succeeded by his nephew Mohammad Qutub shah, as he had no sons.
The glory of the city did not last long. The wealth, fame and its location attracted Aurangazeb, the last Mughal Emperor. He sent his son Mohammad Sultan in 1656 and he captured Golconda in 1687 after a siege that lasted eight months. Aurangazeb also imprisoned Abul Hasan Tana Shah, the last king of Golconda, in Daulatabad jail where he died after twelve years. The Qutub Shahis ruled the Deccan for almost 170 years.
Aurangazeb also took over the Deccan and the South and expanded the Mughal Empire to cover the entire sub-continent. The fall of the Mughal Empire began after the death of Aurangazeb in the year 1707. During this time, the State of Hyderabad was founded by Mir Qamruddin Chin Qilich Khan, who was the son of Aurangazeb's general Ghaziuddin Khan Feroz Jung. After the death of Aurangazeb, Emperor Farrukh Siyar made Mir Qamruddin as the Viceroy of Deccan and entitled him with the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk Feroze Jung Asaf Jah. Thus he became the first Nizam and the founder of Asaf Jah dynasty.
Asaf Jah I continued to maintain Aruangabad as the capital of his new state. In the year 1769, Asaf Jah II shifted the capital to Hyderabad. Also, languages like Persian, Urdu, Telugu and Marathi developed and Persian was made the official language up to 1893 and then Urdu up to 1948. The city was ruled by the seven Nizams for nearly 220 years. During their rule, the city saw an economical boom with the construction of huge reservoirs like the Nizam Sagar, Tungabadra, Osman Sagar, Himayath Sagar and several buildings of archaeological and public importance like Purani Haveli, Chow Mahalla Palace, Osmania University, Jubilee Hall, Assembly Building, Asifia Library, Osmania Hospital, High Court and all the buildings in Public Gardens. The state had its own currency, mint, railways and postal system. Thus Hyderabad became the largest princely state in India.
Hyderabad was the only state that had a fully fledged paper currency, which came into existence in 1916. The city enjoyed a wide circulation of this currency till 1952. The notes were printed till 1939 by Waterlow & Sons, and then onwards by the Security Press at Nasik. The notes are dated in "Fasli" years, an era that prevailed in the Deccan, associated closely with the Hijri era. If you observe, these notes are printed entirely in Urdu and other languages like Kannada, Telugu and Marathi, which were used in the state. They are signed by the "Moin-ul-Mulam" or Finance Minister. Sir R.R.Clancey, Hyder Nawaz Jung, Fakhre-yar Jung were a few of the signatories on those notes.
In 1799, the Nizam supported the East India Company in the war with Tipu Sultan of Mysore. A subsidiary alliance for military and political cooperation was signed between the Nizam and the British East India Company who gave part of their territories to the Nizam.
The Hyderabad contingent was incorporated in the Indian Army for the protection of the Nizam's dominion. Nizam Mir Usman Ali Khan Bahadur was the seventh in Asaf Jah dynasty to succeed the throne in 1911. He was entitled with "His Exalted Highness" and "Faithful Ally of the British Government" by the British. The then Viceroy of British Government declared that they had a supreme power in India and that Nizam's state was no different from that.
However, the Nizam did not like idea and under the influence of a fanatical body called Ittehadul Muslimin under Kasim Razvi, declared his intention to remain as an Independent State. He had an ambition to attain a Dominion Status for his State.
But when he saw that the Indian Independence Bill did not permit that grant of a Dominion Status to an Indian State, the Nizam sent his delegate, the Nawab of Chhatari, to meet Lord Mountbatten. Some of his (Nawab's) ministers wanted to take the matter to the United Nations Organization, which the Indian Government did not agree as any international law or outside Body, was not supposed to interfere into the Indo-Hyderabad issue, as it was domestic. They did not agree the Nizam's claim to knock the door of the good offices of UNO in that connation. However, the Nizam was keen to become Independent State and acquire the Dominion Status.
In all this, he took the support of Khasim Razvi of the Ittehadul and its up roaring troopers, the Razakars. The Hindus, who contributed 93% of Hyderabad's population, supported the "Join India" movement along with some patriotic Muslims. The State Congress leaders also supported this movement and the Nizam banned the State Congress. The communists organized some village defence squads to protect its people from the attacks of Nizam's Police and Razakars. The Nizam Government did not agree the agreement to the Indian Union. All this led to a serious threat, to the peace and harmony of the whole nation. The growing violence by the Razakars seriously put in danger to the law and order. However, the Government of India calmed the situation and the Nizam finally entered into a 'Stand Still Agreement' on November 29, 1947, with India for one year to maintain the status quo.
Meanwhile, the violence by the Razakars and the Nizam's attempt to get him an independent state grew. He also sent a delegation to the UNO to refer the Hyderabad case to the Security Council. The Government of India decided to curb these by launching a 'Police Action' against Nizam. An Indian Army led by Major-General JN Chaudhuri, entered the state from five directions and on September 18, 1948, Nizam's forces surrendered to the Indian Army. The Prime Minister of the Nizam, Mir Laik Ali and Khasim Razvi were arrested. This movement came to be known as Razakars Movement.
Thus the Razakars Movement came to an end. Soon after India gained independence, Hyderabad State merged with the Union of India in 1948 with Major-General JN Chaudhuri as the Military Governor of Hyderabad until 1949. On November 1, 1956, the state was recognized on linguistic grounds and Hyderabad became the capital city of the new state of Andhra Pradesh.